Sunday, December 30, 2012

CT Law Restricting Animal Rescue Signed by Gov

CT Law Restricting Animal Rescue Signed by Gov

Gov. Daniel Malloy has signed into law a bill that requires "animal importers" to register with the state which includes payment of a $100 annual fee.

Substitute House Bill 5368 also requires "animal importers" to comply with regulations that can be issued with respect to "health, safety and humane treatment" of the animals. The Commissioner of Agriculture is authorized to inspect the animals and any records of the "animal importer".
A violation can mean a fine up to $500.

Animal importers must also notify the state Dept. of Agriculture and local zoning officer of any sale, adoption, or transfer of animals that is open to the public. A failure to comply can mean a fine up to $100.
What is an "animal importer"?
According to the bill, an "animal importer" is "a person who brings any dog or cat into this state ...for the purpose of offering such dog or cat to any person for sale, adoption or transfer in exchange for any fee, sale, voluntary contribution, service or any other consideration".
This includes "any commercial or nonprofit animal rescue or adoption, humane relocation or delivery organization that is not otherwise required to be licensed". This means all rescues and those transporting animals to rescues within the state. The definition is broad enough to include those traveling through the state with rescued animals.

More requirements under the new law
Not only must animals imported into the state be accompanied by a health certificate, but the "animal importer" is responsible with limited exceptions for obtaining a veterinary exam and new health certificate for the animal within 48 hours of entering the state. Also, the animal must be examined by a licensed veterinarian every 90 days until the animal is sold, transferred or adopted. Veterinary records must be kept by the animal importer for up to 3 years. A violation of any of these provisions can mean a fine up to $500.
Then there is this provision: Any animal importer who intends to offer for sale, adoption or transfer any dog or cat at a venue or location that is open to the public or at an outdoor location, ... shall provide notice to the Department of Agriculture and the municipal zoning enforcement officer of the town ...not later than ten days prior to such event. Such notice shall state the date for such sale, adoption or transfer event, the exact location of such event and the anticipated number of animals for sale, adoption or transfer at such event.
A violation can mean a $100 fine.
This notice appears to apply to a rescuer transporting an animal into Connecticut for transfer at a shopping center, for example, to another rescue which may then take the animal for placement or transport out of state. notice.
The Federation of Responsible Rescues says the new law will "effectively ends the ability of legitimate rescues to offer dogs for adoption in the state of Connecticut by making the cost so prohibitive that adoption is not feasible for the vast majority of adopters."
Substitute H.B. 5368 specifically excludes breeders and dealers bringing dogs and cats into the state to deliver them for sale at pet stores.
Fines are also increased from a $100 maximum to up to $500 for violations of laws requiring health certificates for imported dogs and cats with copies sent to the commissioner of agriculture, permission from the state veterinarian for import of dogs or cats under a rabies quarantine, and the ban on the transport into the state dogs or cats less than 8 weeks of age without their mother for sale, adoption or transfer, and the sale, adoption or transfer of dogs and cats less than 8 weeks of age.
The new law goes into effect October 1, 2011.

Cruelty towards Animals, NC GS Article 47

Article 47.
Cruelty to Animals.
§ 14‑360. Cruelty to animals; construction of section.
(a) If any person shall intentionally overdrive, overload, wound, injure, torment, kill, or deprive of necessary sustenance, or cause or procure to be overdriven, overloaded, wounded, injured, tormented, killed, or deprived of necessary sustenance, any animal, every such offender shall for every such offense be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
(a1) If any person shall maliciously kill, or cause or procure to be killed, any animal by intentional deprivation of necessary sustenance, that person shall be guilty of a Class H felony.
(b) If any person shall maliciously torture, mutilate, maim, cruelly beat, disfigure, poison, or kill, or cause or procure to be tortured, mutilated, maimed, cruelly beaten, disfigured, poisoned, or killed, any animal, every such offender shall for every such offense be guilty of a Class H felony. However, nothing in this section shall be construed to increase the penalty for cockfighting provided for in G.S. 14‑362.
(c) As used in this section, the words "torture", "torment", and "cruelly" include or refer to any act, omission, or neglect causing or permitting unjustifiable pain, suffering, or death. As used in this section, the word "intentionally" refers to an act committed knowingly and without justifiable excuse, while the word "maliciously" means an act committed intentionally and with malice or bad motive. As used in this section, the term "animal" includes every living vertebrate in the classes Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia except human beings. However, this section shall not apply to the following activities:
(1) The lawful taking of animals under the jurisdiction and regulation of the Wildlife Resources Commission, except that this section shall apply to those birds exempted by the Wildlife Resources Commission from its definition of "wild birds" pursuant to G.S. 113‑129(15a).
(2) Lawful activities conducted for purposes of biomedical research or training or for purposes of production of livestock, poultry, or aquatic species.
(2a) Lawful activities conducted for the primary purpose of providing food for human or animal consumption.
(3) Activities conducted for lawful veterinary purposes.
(4) The lawful destruction of any animal for the purposes of protecting the public, other animals, property, or the public health.
(5) The physical alteration of livestock or poultry for the purpose of conforming with breed or show standards. (1881, c. 34, s. 1; c. 368, ss. 1, 15; Code, ss. 2482, 2490; 1891, c. 65; Rev., s. 3299; 1907, c. 42; C.S., s. 4483; 1969, c. 1224, s. 2; 1979, c. 641; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 1; 1989, c. 670, s. 1; 1993, c. 539, s. 239; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 1998‑212, s. 17.16(c); 1999‑209, s. 8; 2007‑211, ss. 1, 2; 2010‑16, ss. 1, 2.)
§ 14‑360.1. Immunity for veterinarian reporting animal cruelty.
Any veterinarian licensed in this State who has reasonable cause to believe that an animal has been the subject of animal cruelty in violation of G.S. 14‑360 and who makes a report of animal cruelty, or who participates in any investigation or testifies in any judicial proceeding that arises from a report of animal cruelty, shall be immune from civil liability, criminal liability, and liability from professional disciplinary action and shall not be in breach of any veterinarian‑patient confidentiality, unless the veterinarian acted in bad faith or with a malicious purpose. It shall be a rebuttable presumption that the veterinarian acted in good faith. A failure by a veterinarian to make a report of animal cruelty shall not constitute grounds for disciplinary action under G.S. 90‑187.8. (2007‑232, s. 1.)
§ 14‑361. Instigating or promoting cruelty to animals.
If any person shall willfully set on foot, or instigate, or move to, carry on, or promote, or engage in, or do any act towards the furtherance of any act of cruelty to any animal, he shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. (1881, c. 368, s. 6; Code, s. 2487; 1891, c. 65; Rev., s. 3300; C.S., s. 4484; 1953, c. 857, s. 1; 1969, c. 1224, s. 3; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 1; 1989, c. 670, s. 2; 1993, c. 539, s. 240; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)
§ 14‑361.1. Abandonment of animals.
Any person being the owner or possessor, or having charge or custody of an animal, who willfully and without justifiable excuse abandons the animal is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. (1979, c. 687; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 2; 1989, c. 670, s. 3; 1993, c. 539, s. 241; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)
§ 14‑362. Cockfighting.
A person who instigates, promotes, conducts, is employed at, allows property under his ownership or control to be used for, participates as a spectator at, or profits from an exhibition featuring the fighting of a cock is guilty of a Class I felony. A lease of property that is used or is intended to be used for an exhibition featuring the fighting of a cock is void, and a lessor who knows this use is made or is intended to be made of his property is under a duty to evict the lessee immediately. (1881, c. 368, s. 2; Code, s. 2483; 1891, c. 65; Rev., s. 3301; C.S., s. 4485; 1953, c. 857, s. 2; 1969, c. 1224, s. 3; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 3; 1993, c. 539, s. 242; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 2005‑437, s. 1.)
§ 14‑362.1. Animal fights and baiting, other than cock fights, dog fights and dog baiting.
(a) A person who instigates, promotes, conducts, is employed at, provides an animal for, allows property under his ownership or control to be used for, or profits from an exhibition featuring the fighting or baiting of an animal, other than a cock or a dog, is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. A lease of property that is used or is intended to be used for an exhibition featuring the fighting or baiting of an animal, other than a cock or a dog, is void, and a lessor who knows this use is made or is intended to be made of his property is under a duty to evict the lessee immediately.
(b) A person who owns, possesses, or trains an animal, other than a cock or a dog, with the intent that the animal be used in an exhibition featuring the fighting or baiting of that animal or any other animal is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.
(c) A person who participates as a spectator at an exhibition featuring the fighting or baiting of an animal, other than a cock or a dog, is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.
(d) A person who commits an offense under subsection (a) within three years after being convicted of an offense under this section is guilty of a Class I felony.
(e) This section does not prohibit the lawful taking or training of animals under the jurisdiction and regulation of the Wildlife Resources Commission. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 5; 1993, c. 539, ss. 243, 1236; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c); 1997‑78, s. 2.)
§ 14‑362.2. Dog fighting and baiting.
(a) A person who instigates, promotes, conducts, is employed at, provides a dog for, allows property under the person's ownership or control to be used for, gambles on, or profits from an exhibition featuring the baiting of a dog or the fighting of a dog with another dog or with another animal is guilty of a Class H felony. A lease of property that is used or is intended to be used for an exhibition featuring the baiting of a dog or the fighting of a dog with another dog or with another animal is void, and a lessor who knows this use is made or is intended to be made of the lessor's property is under a duty to evict the lessee immediately.
(b) A person who owns, possesses, or trains a dog with the intent that the dog be used in an exhibition featuring the baiting of that dog or the fighting of that dog with another dog or with another animal is guilty of a Class H felony.
(c) A person who participates as a spectator at an exhibition featuring the baiting of a dog or the fighting of a dog with another dog or with another animal is guilty of a Class H felony.
(d) This section does not prohibit the use of dogs in the lawful taking of animals under the jurisdiction and regulation of the Wildlife Resources Commission.
(e) This section does not prohibit the use of dogs in earthdog trials that are sanctioned or sponsored by entities approved by the Commissioner of Agriculture that meet standards that protect the health and safety of the dogs. Quarry at an earthdog trial shall at all times be kept separate from the dogs by a sturdy barrier, such as a cage, and have access to food and water.
(f) This section does not apply to the use of herding dogs engaged in the working of domesticated livestock for agricultural, entertainment, or sporting purposes. (1997‑78, s. 1; 2006‑113, s. 3.1; 2006‑259, s. 37; 2007‑180, s. 1; 2007‑181, s. 1.)
§ 14‑362.3. Restraining dogs in a cruel manner.
A person who maliciously restrains a dog using a chain or wire grossly in excess of the size necessary to restrain the dog safely is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. For purposes of this section, "maliciously" means the person imposed the restraint intentionally and with malice or bad motive. (2001‑411, s. 2.)
§ 14‑363. Conveying animals in a cruel manner.
If any person shall carry or cause to be carried in or upon any vehicle or other conveyance, any animal in a cruel or inhuman manner, he shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Whenever an offender shall be taken into custody therefor by any officer, the officer may take charge of such vehicle or other conveyance and its contents, and deposit the same in some safe place of custody. The necessary expenses which may be incurred for taking charge of and keeping and sustaining the vehicle or other conveyance shall be a lien thereon, to be paid before the same can be lawfully reclaimed; or the said expenses, or any part thereof remaining unpaid, may be recovered by the person incurring the same of the owner of such animal in an action therefor. (1881, c. 368, s. 5; Code, s. 2486; 1891, c. 65; Rev., s. 3302; C.S., s. 4486; 1953, c. 857, s. 3; 1969, c. 1224, s. 4; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 1; 1989, c. 670, s. 4; 1993, c. 539, s. 244; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)
§ 14‑363.1. Living baby chicks or other fowl, or rabbits under eight weeks of age; disposing of as pets or novelties forbidden.
If any person, firm or corporation shall sell, or offer for sale, barter or give away as premiums living baby chicks, ducklings, or other fowl or rabbits under eight weeks of age as pets or novelties, such person, firm or corporation shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor. Provided, that nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit the sale of nondomesticated species of chicks, ducklings, or other fowl, or of other fowl from proper brooder facilities by hatcheries or stores engaged in the business of selling them for purposes other than for pets or novelties. (1973, c. 466, s. 1; 1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 967, s. 4; 1993, c. 539, s. 245; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)
§ 14‑363.2. Confiscation of cruelly treated animals.
Conviction of any offense contained in this Article may result in confiscation of cruelly treated animals belonging to the accused and it shall be proper for the court in its discretion to order a final determination of the custody of the confiscated animals. (1979, c. 640.)

Animal Cruelty at it's worse for Wayne County, NC

Asking questions should never put you in fear or make you feel as retaliation will shortly follow.  It’s our right and responsibility to ask questions on any issue that seems to raise our eyebrows and the sooner we ask the better in most cases.

Although this case is from 2009, I feel we can learn from it to help prevent such events taking place in the future or if nothing else maybe with our right to ask a  question, we can reduce the amount of suffering that other animals may fall victim to versus turning a blind eye.

I look to this case and question on where this man was able to get so many animals, 26 dogs made it out alive on this man’s property but yet an undetermined amount of animals fell victim of his crimes while he mutilated, decapitated and dissected other animals. What pain did they live thru prior to their death?

In 2009 we saw a huge turn to social media for Shelter Animals, people would post a picture of an animal on death row, other people would hit the share button, a Chip In would shortly go up to save the animal and before you knew it someone from many States away announces with just a profile picture and a name that no one knows announces,  they will take the animal if you can get the animal to them. And then we are off, post after post some of the same people would say, I will take that animal, please get it to me.

This all sounds wonderful if you take it for face value, but if you dig deeper you will find many of those unknown profiles on social media are not who you think they are, they are not the name they have listed nor are they living in the location that is listed on their info, yet you have now just shipped them a live animal for them to do with what they please. My point here is none of us should be shipping live animals to people we have not meet in person, never ship an animal to someone without a verified Vet check, and a home visit is a must. Don’t think for a minute that all those profiles jumping to help these Shelter Animals are here for the right reasons. Hidden behind many of those anonymous profiles are animal abusers, class b dealers, hoarders and crush video makers.

I’m not stating that this man in this one case acquired all of these animals due to social media or Craig’s Lists, but I am stating that anytime you send a live animal off to another party that it’s high time you slow down and check on who the receiving party really is. Don’t allow some website to fool you, as we have seen these days, anyone can put anything they want on the internet, doesn’t mean it’s factual.

Check with local Animal Control Officers in the town they live in, contact their current Veterinarian, Dept. of Agriculture, and other State or County Offices. Never should any of us just send these Shelter Animals to a profile on social media as they could land in the hands of a man like this.

Slow down, verify facts for yourself, don’t allow others to direct you on their versions of the truth. Take responsibility for the animals that you have a hand in getting to another party. It tears at the heart but sometimes there is worse than being humanly euthanized in a shelter and it’s called reckless rescue efforts where you send a helpless animal into the hands of someone like this man. I can’t image the pain that some of these animals endured prior to finally dying, the same kind of pain that animals in hoarding situations face, or what’s even worse are those animals that endure the torture of being held in a live testing facility by the hands of the manufactures that still test their products on live animals. It’s 2013, we know better now and we can do better for all living creatures from today forward.

So before you decide to surrender your family pet to a County Shelter, ask yourself what horror am I about to place this animal in? In case you didn’t know, a County Animal Shelter is just that, it’s not an adoption center by any means.

In North Carolina we are listed as a “High Kill” State, we euthanize 287,000 animals each year (on the books that is) while more than 11 Counties still haven’t reported their numbers to be account for. So if you loosely add those missing 11 Counties numbers it raises the State of North Carolina yearly euthanized animals to over 345,000.00 animals a year that are disposed of by one form or another of euthanasia.

Shame on all of us or allowing this to continue to take place this day and time.

Please see local news story link here:

A Fremont man, whom authorities charged earlier this month with three counts of misdemeanor animal cruelty, now faces a fourth charge because four dead owls were found on his property.

Lawton McKenzie, 28, of Old Black Creek Road, was arrested Jan. 6 after animal control officers seized dismembered animals, a machete, knives, bowls of blood and what appeared to be a decapitated puppy's head in a bag. Investigators also removed 26 living animals from the home.

Owls are protected under state law.

A Wayne County judge ruled Thursday that McKenzie must also pay the county for the upkeep of animals seized from his home last month.

The county filed a civil complaint against him last week and also requested he post sufficient funds with the Wayne County Clerk of Superior Court to ensure the care of the animals for an additional 30 days.

McKenzie has five working days to post the $8,640 necessary for the upkeep of the animals or he automatically forfeits them.

McKenzie has denied the animal cruelty charges, saying he was studying taxidermy and that he began picking up animal carcasses for that purpose.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Homemade Dog Treats, yummy !

Pumpkin Dog Biscuits

2 eggs

1/2 cup canned pumpkin

2 tablespoons dry milk

1/4 teaspoon sea salt

2 1/2 cups brown rice flour *

1 teaspoon dried parsley (optional)

Preheat oven to 350.

In large bowl, whisk together eggs and pumpkin to smooth. Stir in dry milk, sea salt, and dried parsley (if using, optional). Add brown rice flour gradually, combining with spatula or hands to form a stiff, dry dough. Turn out onto lightly floured surface (can use the brown rice flour) and if dough is still rough, briefly knead and press to combine.

Roll dough between 1/4 – 1/2″ – depending on your dog’s chew preferences, – and use biscuit or other shape cutter to punch shapes, gathering and re-rolling scraps as you go. Place shapes on cookie sheet, no greasing or paper necessary. If desired, press fork pattern on biscuits before baking, a quick up-and-down movement with fork, lightly pressing down halfway through dough. Bake 20 minutes. Remove from oven and carefully turn biscuits over, then bake additional 20 minutes. Allow to cool completely on rack before feeding to dog.

Tuesday, December 25, 2012

What does a Micro-chip mean to you or your valued family pet in North Carolina? I will tell you now, not much.

Most of us live in a world with rose colored glasses, we think for the most part that the rest of the people around us are living the most honest life they can. One would even think in a North Carolina Animal Shelter that before we give an animal the “ needle of death ” that all attempts have been made to reunite this animal with their previous owner. Sorry to disappoint you but that is just not the case in most North Carolina Animal Shelters or even your local Veterinarians Offices.

Believe it or not but most North Carolina County Animal Shelters, Animal Control Officers and even you own local Veterinarian Office does not own or have on hand a microchip scanner.

We hear all the time, please microchip your family pet in case it’s gets lost, but what good does it due to microchip your family pet if those who are most likely to be in possession of your lost pet ( i.e. a local NC County Animal Shelter) doesn’t even have a microchip scanner on hand, their truck or at the main Shelter?

Until we join hands and voice our concerns to the NC General Assembly this will not change. What can you do today as just an individual citizen? Email, write, fax or even call your local State Legislators and tell them to amend the current law (130A-192) and require all NC Shelters to have no less than 1 microchip scanner on hand at all times and change the wording of “ may scan ” to all employees must be required to scan all animals prior to intake along with a second scan prior to euthanasia.

It’s the least we can do to try and bring positive change into our Sheltering System, after all most microchip scanner companies will provide a “ free” scanner for their use. So why do we not have a microchip scanner present at all North Carolina Animal Shelters to help cut down on the useless euthanize rate but to also reunite families with their long lost family pet? In North Carolina we are simply just “ Too Quick to Kill ” and it’s time we stop looking for excuses to kill. Every life has value and it’s not ours too choose without every precaution being made that we have tired our best to reunite an animal with this owner.

North Carolina General Statute 130A-192:

(a) The Animal Control Officer shall canvass the county to determine if there are any animals not wearing the required rabies vaccination tag. If an animal required to wear a tag is found not wearing one, the Animal Control Officer shall check to see if the owner's identification can be found on the animal. If the animal is wearing an owner identification tag with information enabling the owner of the animal to be contacted, or if the Animal Control Officer otherwise knows who the owner is, the Animal Control Officer shall notify the owner in writing to have the animal vaccinated against rabies and to produce the required rabies vaccination certificate to the Animal Control Officer within three days of the notification. If the animal is not wearing an owner identification tag and the Animal Control Officer does not otherwise know who the owner is, the Animal Control Officer may impound the animal. The duration of the impoundment of these animals shall be established by the county board of commissioners, but the duration shall not be less than 72 hours. During the impoundment period, the Animal Control Officer shall make a reasonable effort to locate the owner of the animal. If the Animal Control Officer has access at no cost or at a reasonable cost to a microchip scanning device, the Animal Control Officer may scan the animal and utilize any information that may be available through a microchip to locate the owner of the animal, if possible. If the animal is not reclaimed by its owner during the impoundment period, the animal shall be disposed of in one of the following manners: returned to the owner; adopted as a pet by a new owner; sold to institutions within this State registered by the United States Department of Agriculture pursuant to the Federal Animal Welfare Act, as amended; or put to death by a procedure approved by rules adopted by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services or, in the absence of such rules, by a procedure approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Humane Society of the United States or of the American Humane Association.
How to contact your North Carolina General Assembly Members:

Monday, December 24, 2012

Feline Health Tips

Some helpful tips on the feline community


The incubation period of herpes is 2-6 days. Most cats that have recovered from herpes will be carriers of the virus for life. They shed it intermittently under normal conditions and during times of stress. This shedding can begin a week after the stressful incident and continue for 3 weeks afterward. They may shed virus after recovery from illness for 3 weeks.


The incubation period of calici virus is 1-5 days. Some cats that have recovered from infection will shed the virus continuously for the rest of their lives without regard to stress. 50% shed at least 75 days post-recovery regardless of stress. Fortunately most cats do eliminate calici virus from their bodies eventually.


It is believed that there is a carrier state with bordetella, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear yet. Bordetella has an incubation period of 3-10 days and can be shed for 3 months post recovery. Transmission is via direct contact, fomites and aerosol. It is zoonotic but human cases are believed to be rare.


The incubation period of chlamydophila is 3-14 days and post recovery shedding can last as long as 18 months. Transmission of the organism is either through direct contact or fomites. It is zoonotic.


This intracellular bacteria is commonly isolated from the oropharynx of normal cats. The role that Mycoplasma plays in feline URI has not been fully established. Mycoplasma is passed from cat to cat via direct transmission, with minimal transmission via fomites. It does not survive well in the environment and it is killed by routine disinfection. Routine disinfection and timely isolation of symptomatic cats is best to control this disease in the shelter.

Clinical Signs

Most cats with signs of upper respiratory disease suffer from bouts of sneezing and runny eyes. In most cases, shelters do not bother to distinguish between the different disease causing agents. However, it is important to make the distinction in order to design effective control measures, such as vaccination or treatment protocols.

Diagnostic testing should be undertaken under the following circumstances: when signs persist for over a month; signs are unusually severe or frequent; prior to treatment with steroids; and for liability issues.


The lethargy, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharges may be worse with herpes than the other diseases. Herpes is also accompanied by fever, depression, loss of appetite, eye ulcers and drooling.


Calici virus produces oral ulcers and lameness. These may be the only signs or they may be seen in combination with the same signs as herpes, only milder. There is a virulent systemic calici virus syndrome that causes sudden death in vaccinated adult cats as well as kittens and other animals that would ordinarily be considered protected. A description of the syndrome can be found at the website managed by the University of California Koret Shelter Medicine Program.


Chlamydophila produces a serious conjunctivitis (eye infection), accompanied by mild sneezing. This same organism may cause conjunctivitis in humans.


 Bordetella is still being researched. It is believed to cause fever, sneezing, nasal discharge, enlargement of the lymph nodes found under the throat and loud, harsh lung sounds. Coughing may also be observed.


This bacteria most commonly causes ocular signs including ocular discharge and swelling of the conjunctiva.


Diagnosis is generally made based on the clinical signs. Cultures from the mouth, throat, eyes or nose may be sent to the laboratory for confirmation. There are PCR diagnostic kits available from Idexx and Zoologix that provide a feline upper respiratory diagnostic panel.


Treatment for the viral diseases is symptomatic. Isolation is essential if cats with URI are to be treated in the shelter, but placing infected animals in foster care is a better management strategy. Good nursing care (wiping away ocular and nasal discharges, force-feeding, keeping warm, etc.) is essential for the comfort of these animals.

Broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics to protect against secondary bacterial infections may be necessary because of the increased risk of exposure in shelters, but they should generally be reserved for animals with purulent ocular and nasal discharges, anorexia, depression, dehydration, etc. Tetracycline, doxycycline or Clavamox are the drugs of choice to use against secondary bacterial invasions as well as against bordetella, chlamydophila and mycoplasma. Doxycycline is less likely than tetracycline to cause yellow staining of the teeth in younger animals. However, doxycycline can result in esophageal stricture, so it must be used with caution.

Ophthalmic ointment may be needed in some cases. The ophthalmic ointment should contain an antibiotic but NOT a steroid (as a cat may have a corneal ulcer which can be made worse by the use of a steroid ointment in the eye). Examples of ophthalmic ointments recommended include Terramycin, Chloramphenicol, and triple antibiotic ophthalmic ointment.

Fluid therapy may be necessary in severe cases. Antiviral drugs may be necessary in the form of eye drops for herpes viral-induced eye lesions. Cats who are unable to smell their food as a result of the infection may lose their appetite and refuse to eat, so they must be encouraged by offering foods with strong aromas, baby foods or other soft and blended foods. It may be necessary to place a nasogastric tube to force feed them if they continue to refuse to eat. L-lysine can also be used as a nutritional supplement to decrease the severity of symptoms of feline URI. Steam inhalation or nebulizers may also be helpful.

Shelters must consider carefully the resources they have available and the risk to healthy cats when undertaking treatment. A cat who needs only minimal treatment to recover from an upper respiratory infection may pass it on to another cat who requires intensive care therapy. Once the shelter has run out of space to isolate sick animals or place them in foster care, it may be necessary to consider euthanasia to protect the lives of the rest of the animals.

Management and Prevention


It is critical to disinfect the environment to control any disease outbreak even if the pathogen does not survive long term outside the host’s body. Except for calici virus, the respiratory pathogens are all fairly susceptible to chemical destruction:

•Herpes virus persists outside the animal's body for only about 18 hours and is easily destroyed by most disinfectants.

•Calici virus can persist for up to a week or longer in a damp environment and is slightly more resistant to disinfectants.

•Chlamydophila is unstable outside the host's body and can survive in ocular discharges at room temperature for several days.

• Mycoplasma does not survive well in the environment and is susceptible to routine disinfection.

Cleaning protocols for cats have changed dramatically over the past few years. Because it is well known that herpes virus reactivates with stress, any cleaning protocol must strive to minimize stress to cats. Studies have shown that the stress to cats that results from simply moving them from cage to cage can result in herpes reactivation.

New recommendations are to leave cats in their enclosures for the duration of their stay, and spot clean their cages, reserving disinfection for when a new animal is placed in the cage. Alternatively each cat can be assigned an adjoining cage and they can just move from one cage to the other while their cage is cleaned. The least desirable but still acceptable option is to assign each animal a carrier and place the cat in the same carrier each time she is removed from her cage while it is cleaned. No other cat may be placed in that carrier. For spot cleaning, the water bowls, food dishes, and litter boxes are removed from the cage and replaced with disinfected items. The cage is simply wiped down only in areas of visible soiling.

The entire cage is cleaned with soap and hot water, including the bars in the front, sides, bottoms and tops and disinfected whenever a new resident is introduced. The disinfectant should be applied and allowed contact with the surface according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and then rinsed. The cage should be completely dry before the cat is placed in it.

Sodium hypochlorite, or household bleach, is one of the most effective and inexpensive disinfectants available for shelters to use to kill calici virus as well as the other respiratory pathogens. If diluted 1:32 with warm water, it is less likely to be corrosive to the cage surfaces or act as an irritant to the cat's mucus membranes. Trifectant or potassium peroxymonosulfate is another excellent product to use for cleaning cat cages. It reliably kills parvo and calici virus, is easy to mix and use, and has the advantage of having some detergent properties and of being less irritating to mucus membranes and less corrosive to metal.

Staff, volunteers and the public should be instructed to avoid handling or touching animals during outbreaks especially. They should wash their hands thoroughly after each contact and wear protective garments.

Shelter Design

Cage placement and ventilation have a lot to do with the spread of disease. A cat's sneeze can travel about 3-4 feet, so it is important to have cat cages at least 4 feet apart if they are facing each other. Shelter traffic patterns should place as much distance as possible between sick wards and healthy ones. Staff who clean and work in several areas should start in the areas with healthy juvenile and susceptible animals and end in the areas with diseased animals.

Lack of adequate ventilation also plays a key part in disease spread. If an air exchange system is employed, there should be a minimum of 12-15 air changes per hour, preferably with outside air. If not, circulation patterns should go from healthy areas and kitten areas to sick areas. HEPA filters may be helpful in refreshing the air, but should not be relied on to counter inadequate ventilation systems. Avoid ozone and ion generators.

Fresh air is also extremely valuable in reducing incidence and severity of feline URI in shelters. Ideally, isolation areas as well as cat holding areas should have windows with screens that open to the outside, and these windows should be open when weather permits.

Disease Outbreak Management

The following other measures should help prevent and minimize the impact of upper respiratory infections:

•Examine all animals on intake.
•Isolate sick animals immediately.
•Vaccinate on intake all cats beginning at 4-6 weeks of age with a modified live vaccine for feline herpes (rhinotracheitis), calici and panleukopenia (FVRCP), with boosters every 2 weeks until 16-18 weeks of age.
•Adult cats may be given one injection, but a booster 2 weeks later should be considered in a high risk situation.
•Consider using an intranasal vaccine if URI is a real or persistent problem. Many shelters report excellent results in reducing the incidence of URI when switching vaccines from the parenteral (injectable) to intranasal product. Intranasal vaccines can be used in animals as young as 3 weeks of age if using the bivalent product against calici and herpes virus. The main advantage is that a faster immune response is seen compared to use of the injectable vaccine. The main drawbacks with the intranasal vaccines are that they are harder to administer and cause side effects that mimic actual clinical disease. The difference is that the animals with vaccine reactions still appear well and only sneeze and have runny eyes for a couple of days. Adopters of animals who have been given this vaccine should be advised of the side effects so they and their veterinarians will know what to expect. (If using an intranasal vaccine to prevent feline URI, a subcutaneous panleukopenia vaccine is still needed to prevent feline distemper. The panleukopenia vaccine is usually combined with calici and herpes virus, and this multivalent vaccine can be used in addition to an intranasal vaccine).
•Although there is still debate regarding whether or not bordetella is a primary cause of disease, some shelters report a decrease in the incidence of URI after using the intranasal bordetella vaccine. Positive cultures of bordetella should be obtained before using this product.
•Deworm kittens and cats routinely with a broad spectrum anthelmintic.
•Feed the best diet affordable, and for individual needs.
•Segregate kittens by litter and age groups. Kittens under 3 months of age are most susceptible to disease and should be separated from other litters and from adult animals, or placed in foster care until the outbreak is under control.
•Disinfect water bowls daily and between usages by different animals.
•Instruct staff, volunteers and visitors about spreading disease via fomites.
•Use hand sanitizers with 70% alcohol. Hand washing remains best.
•Post signs asking the public to prevent disease spread by washing their hands and to avoid handling animals without staff supervision.
•Use disposable litter pans, toys, cleaning cloths, food dishes, etc.
•Restrict the use of cleaning materials to individual rooms or wards.
•Launder uniforms in hot water, detergent and bleach.
•Reduce stress!
•Avoid crowding, loud noises.
•Consider colony housing in addition to conventional individual cages for some cats.
•Provide bedding, toys, perches and hiding places.
•Establish a routine for cleaning and other procedures.
•Maintain comfortable environmental conditions, evaluating temperature, humidity and ventilation in every animal holding area.
•Turn the lights off at night so animals can sleep.
•Provide access to natural light.
•Place mildly affected animals in foster homes where treatment can be continued without exposing all the animals to risk of infection.

 Credits: Lila Miller, DVM

Saturday, December 22, 2012

North Carolina illegal animal transport, reckless rescue and out-of state- animal rescuers


Inside view of Tom and Amber Adkins Animal Transport Vehicle. Note that there is no access to air condition or heat. Just a metal box on wheels. No ventilation at all.
Side view of Tom and Amber Adkins Animal Transport out of Reidsville NC property. Again notice no air, no vents or any heat for winter travel up to New York where they took their animals. Pancake Hollow out of New York was one of their partners.

The housing Tom and Amber kept the dogs until they shipped them up to New York. This picture was taken in the middle of the NC summer months where it was 90 plus degree. No Shelter from the sun or rain to fit all these dogs.

What happens when you don't give a dog shelter from 90 degree days, day after day, let alone food or fresh water.... they die.

And how much did Tom and Amber Adkins care about these animals they sold for cash, apparently not enough to remove the dead dogs while their kennel mates looked over their dead fly riddled bodies.

So what I am trying to show you is what happens when you put the animals last in the rescue community, this is what happens when on social media you ask profiles that you have never verified or meet to pull and ship an animal to you for a price. 

For them the price is their life, a life more horrible than being humanly euthanized in a Shelter. SO before you go onto social media like Face book and say pull me that animal from 5 states away, or ship me that animal from 5 states away, or before you say I will donate to your Chip In and I don't even know if you are for real..... think of this. Is this what you want to have a hand in?

Investigate who you are dealing with when it comes to a live animal, ask their full name and what state they are registered in, ask that state if this is correct and last but not least go onto the IRS website and see if they have reported their $ in the last year.

Take precautions, put the animal;s health first. Don't allow this to go on in the Animal Rescue Community, this never should of happened and these animals never should of dies such a slow horrible death.

To read more:

Could you spare a can opener for a County Animal Shelter?

Did you know that many County Animal Shelters only have one hand crank can opener? What happens if it gets lost or broken when it’s feeding time for the puppies & kittens in the Shelter? Will an employee be allowed to run out and buy one on the spot, most likely not.  Why not help our County Animal Shelter’s with some small inexpensive donations of items such as this to make their job easier and less stressful while helping the animals out at the same time.


 So let’s lend a hand to some of these County Shelters while we work thru how to become a more humane and caring State for all these homeless animals.


Small steps like this can build a bridge for a more humane shelter experience for most of these animals. Let’s put them first in the equation.

North Carolina Shelter Animals need warmth, can you donate today?

In North Carolina many of our County Shelters have dog runs outside where the dogs are unable to get out of the rain, snow or wind. Many of our County Shelter guillotine doors do not close or the staff refuse to close them at night to keep the elements of the weather away from the Shelter Animals. While many of us are seeing freezing temperatures and snow across the State of NC, could you dig thru your closets and donate some old towels, sheets or blankets to your local County Animal Shelter to help these animals have some warmth. Also many of these animals water bowls will be frozen and they will have no access to drinkable water, maybe you could go to your local Shelter and start a conversation on what it is that they need and address it with the County Manager or NC General Assembly. In 2013 we do not need to have our County Shelters in such horrible conditions, to cage an animal in freezing temperatures with no access to any warmth or drinkable water is just animal cruelty on a Government Level. We can do better for these animals and it starts with all of us taking a stand and giving them a voice. Donate to a local County Animal Shelter and make the conditions just a smidge better for a Shelter Pet. It’s the least we can do for them. Thank you and Happy Holiday’s from NC Shelter Rescue, Inc.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

NC Puppy Mills, Santa says NO WAY !

Santa knows who's naughty or nice, and he's pulls no punches on puppy mills. Santa speaks the truth, Go Santa, Go !

North Carolina Unlicensed Breeders, Way to go AKC, NOT!

This is why NC must pass a Commercial Breeders Bill in 2013, if you want an AKC Puppy from NC this is what your paying for, total animal abuse. This is what makes my blood boil daily, adopt a Shelter Pet and save a life versus paying into Animal Cruelty. Wake up as this is a current picture of someone in operation here in NC today in 2012, this should not be happening. We can do better for our Animals and it starts with you being their voice.

Unlicensed Animal Transport of Shelter Animals

You pulled a dog thru social media, you dealt with profiles that you have never meet in person, you gave them money to transport an animal to you many states away, also you forgot to ask the Animal Transporter for their APHIS License number... which is a Federal Law.... so your mistakes paid for animals to be transported like this. Next time maybe you should check out who you are dealing with by asking some keys questions. This is not Animal Rescue nor Responsible Animal Transport.
Did you just pay for this to happen to these dogs? Do you Chip In on Facebook to pull and transport animals from Shelter via people and profiles you have never meet? If so this is what you might of just played a hand in.


Sunday, December 16, 2012

All Duplin County Animals to be destroyed on 12-18-2012 due to construction.

Duplin County Animal Shelter in North Carolina which has failed State Inspections time and time again is getting geared up to start some improvements to their facility. This sounds wonderful to the ears until you dig a little deeper and find that the County has stated all animals ( at least the dog's) will be euthanized on 12-18-2012 to help them make these much needed changes.

Now if they planned ahead for the dates to make these much needed improvements why not plan ahead and reach out to local Animal Advocates to help save each of these dog's from a death that seems to be less than 2 days away.

How many of these animals will be killed prior to the NC 72 hr. Holding Rule, how many of these animals are family pet's that Animal Control just picked up as strays and the families and the families are still searching for them? Where was the plea for help from the County Manager to save these animals versus just making the quick decision that they all must die?

Now is the time to aid the Duplin County Animal Shelter, if you could reach out and save a life this week please look to this Shelter due to the timeline we now know exists.

And it wouldn't hurt to voice your corners to the County Manager and ask him to give these animals and extension of time so the Animal Advocates have the opportunity to network these homeless pet's. Why was death the only avenue in this County Manager's mind?

County Manager - Mike Aldridge

Phone: (910) 296-2100

To reach a local group to help save a life please contact:

Saturday, December 8, 2012

Welcome to the State of North Carolina where NC Statues exist on paper but are not actually enforceable, hopefully you will take the time to investigate to better help change the future for our County Shelter Animals thru our General Assembly Members. If the Rules and Regulations let alone NC State Statues don’t change for these animals in 2013, then all your screams and tears will mean little to nothing for these animals. In NC we can do better for our County Shelter Animals but for that to take place we need our Animals Advocates to be knowledgeable on these issues.


Due to the amount of info I will be running this in 3-4 parts so please check back from time to time.  I do not want to overwhelmed the Animal Advocates and I want you to be knowledgeable on the issues we face and how to fix them. This will take an army to fix but it can be done.


1/ Did you know that our Shelter Vet Care Law is a farce? Get a copy of the Shelter Vet Care from the NC Dept. of Agar and read thru it, then look at the NC Dept. of Agriculture Inspection Reports on each County Shelter and you will see the box marked “ acceptable” for Shelter Vet Care. Now go a step further and view how many of these County Shelter Animals are laying on these concrete floors injured needing medical attention and never receiving it. Nor is the County Shelter asking for rescuers to step in and take these animals to a Vet which is allowed by the State Statues.


2/ The North Carolina Rabies Law is not even in existence really, sure it looks great on paper but did you know that this NC Statue is placed under the NC DHHS and not the NC Dept. of Agriculture and this makes this law unenforceable as the NC DHHS is only a regulatory office? Rabies should be a concern for all NC Residents and to have such an important law under the wrong dept. and unenforceable should be a priority for all of us to come together and reach out to our General Assembly Members to make an amendment and get this bill under the correct dept., which would be the NC Dept. of Agriculture.


3/ The 72 Hr. Rule, another slip up made by the sponsor of this bill. Again this part of the NC Statues was placed under the NC DHHS and they are only regulatory and cannot really enforce this law as none of their staff members Inspect these NC County Shelters. If you doubt me on this one, go ask the NC DHHS how many times their staff have been into a County Shelter and address either the Rabies or 72 hr. Rule then take it further and ask them how many times have they fined or written a letter to one of these Shelters for either of these issues. You will find your reply to be zero, and this is a huge problem for any Animal Advocate trying to help the advancement for better care of our County Animals. Let alone how many times do we see NC Shelter Animals find their way to the Euthanasia room the same day of intake for whatever reason? Our NC State Statues have many loop holes and it’s our job to close these loop holes so our County Shelter Animals have better care starting in 2013.


4/ NC has no law protecting “ Hunting Dog’s”. This is just unacceptable, any descent hunter should care for their animals with the basic needs but in NC you can have 50 Hunting Dogs in your backyard with no access to food, water or shelter let alone they have no rabies or vaccines which is a public Health concern for all NC Residents and your own family pets these animals come into contact with. You can thank the NRA and the Hunter Association for pumping all that money into their lobbyist to keep these “ Hunting Dog’s” from falling under any law, this must change in 2013 for all State Tax Payers and Residents.


More to come on the bigger issues we face with our current General Statues that just need to be “tweaked”  so they not only look good on paper but are all enforceable.


Thank you and if you have any questions please contact us at We want to help others understand these and many other issues that exist for our County Shelter Animals. And more importanly how to fix them for good!


You can find each County Shelter Inspection at:

You can find the NC DHHS at:

You can purchase the NC Animal Control Handbook at:

And you can view all these Rules & Regulations are they are written ( yet many unenforceable by being under the incorrect dept.) at:

Thursday, December 6, 2012

North Carolina's 72 hour hold policy

Lately many animal lovers have been waking up and seeing animals being killed in North Carolina County Shelters the same day of intake, did you know even if it's an owner surrender this is not allowed?

This is why it's so important prior to screaming that animals are being killed in less than 72 hours in a North Carolina Shelter on Face book or another social media outlet SAVE THE EVIDENCE. Get a copy of the intake card from the Shelter ( It's Public Record in case you didn't know).  If the Shelter Employee's posted a picture of the animal or any info of the animal on Face book, screen shot it all prior to alerting them that you are watching. You don't want all your evidence being removed or deleted prior to you collecting it all for evidence.

To help you further understand not only the issues we have in North Carolina Animal Shelters, you have to understand the law as it is written or should I say the loop holes it has that need to be closed.

In North Carolina to be a knowledgeable Animal Advocate, it is imperative that you understand the NC Animal Welfare Act and our North Carolina State Statues.



Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Have your Pet's picture taken with Santa in North Carolina 2012

Have your Pet's picture taken with Santa in 2012, many locations listed. Merry Christmas from NC Shelter Rescue, Inc. Save a life in North Carolina, Adopt Dont Shop !!
All Pet’s Consider in Greensboro NC

Sunday, December 9, 2012 from 12pm - 4pm

All types of pets are welcome as long as they are friendly and safe.

Keep in mind that people of any age can be in the pictures too.

Several different print packages are available

as well as a variety of gift items that can be personalized with your pictures.

Mark your calendars for Paws with Claus!

December 8, 2012

Noon to 4pm

Admission: Depends on Picture Package

Benefiting: Rottweiler Hearts Rescue
Bring your pets and/or kids out to TSC to have their picture taken with Santa. Prices start at $7.00 for base package.

For more information, please email

Coming from out of town? Get a discounted rate on pet friendly hotels in Fuquay Varina, or call 877-411-FIDO to speak with one of our pet travel experts!


Pet Supplies Plus in Winston Salem NC

Have your child's (PET or human) picture taken with Santa!

Dec. 15-16

Saturdays - 10am to 4pm

Sundays - 12pm to 5pm

Packages Available:
(8) wallets - $18.00

(1) 5x7 & (4) wallets - $24.00

(2) 5x7's - $28.00

(2) 5x7's & (8) wallets - $34.00

CD with 4x6 image for Christmas Cards - $20.00
Proceeds benefit Dachshund Rescue .
For more information contact: Robin at (336) 995-0183


RUFF Santa Photos/Adoption Event - Garner PetSmart

Saturday December 8th, 2012 11:00 AM until 04:00 PM

Location: Garner PetSmart

Map: 2550 Timber Dr Garner NC 27529

See all of the animals attending this event.

Have your family photo taken with your pets and Santa Claus for only $10.

Santa Photos: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.

The Street at SouthPoint Mall

St. Nick's Pet Pics

11/19/2012 - 12/17/2012

Time: 6pm to Set Close on Monday nights

Location: Santa Set
It’s a Waggin’ Good Time!

We’ve reserved a special time with Santa for our furry friends. Bring your favorite tail wagger for a portrait with Santa on the following Monday nights: November 19, November 26, December 3, December 10, and December 17. Capture that special moment and take home the memory that will last a lifetime.

Portraits with Santa begin at 6pm. Photo Packages available for purchase.

Santa welcomes dogs and cats only, please.


Pictures with Santa Petsmart Durham NC

Ho Ho Arooo!!

12/08/2012 11:00:00

Saturday December 8th from 11am to 4pm Santa will be at the PetSmart in Durham on Witherspoon Drive. Santa is donating his time to raise some extra money for Triangle Beagle Rescue. Pictures are $9.95 (with your Petperks card) and $5.00 is donated to TBR. Bring the whole family.


Lucky Dog Bark & Brew
19607 Statesville Road, Cornelius, NC(map)
Come get a picture of your dog with Santa Paws for $25 to
Benefit Forever Home Canine Rescue.
PRE-REGISTER at Mercedes Benz of Northlake Hendrick Luxury Auto Mall (10725 Northlake Auto Plaza Blvd. Charlotte): Friday November 30th and Friday December 7th from 3pm-7pm for a chance to WIN:

1. A Mercedes Benz, Lexus or BMW for and ENTIRE weekend

2. Dinner at the Peninsula Yacht Club and more!

The first 50 people to pre-register will receive a Doggie Stocking full of Christmas joy!

December 8th registration from 10am-1pm